Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
Table of Contents
The transportation sector generates the largest share of emissions in the U.S. accounting for 28 percent of all emissions or roughly 6,340 Million Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent. Transitioning the federal fleet from combustion engine vehicles to electric is a primary pillar of the federal government's effort to decarbonize the transportation sector and reduce emissions. By reducing vehicle emissions, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) will help improve the health of our citizens and the future of our planet.
The federal non-tactical fleet, which carries out a variety of essential agency missions, from food inspection and nuclear waste cleanup to forest and land management, is approximately 656,000 vehicles and drove 4.3 billion miles in 2022 on 379 million gallons of fuel. This equates to 3.4 million metric tons of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions -- equivalent to the energy use in 424,503 homes for one year or 3.78 billion pounds of coal burned. Important components of this effort include reducing the federal fleet’s footprint by transitioning to electric vehicles (EVs) and other zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), as well as encouraging additional footprint reductions among commuting federal employees.
Getting started on deploying Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) (also known as electric vehicle charging infrastructure) can seem daunting, with many decisions to make. The U.S. General Services Administration and its federal partners support federal agencies and other eligible entities in their efforts to transition to an all-electric vehicle fleet and provide the tools and resources needed to enable streamlined procurement, installation, and maintenance of EVSE. The solutions and resources available aim to alleviate confusion, reduce redundancies, simplify decision making, and help fleet, building, and energy managers select an appropriate course of action. All efforts to deploy EVSE should begin with gathering information, then assessing your site specific needs, and selecting an appropriate plan of action. Plans of action will differ simply because every site is different, utility incentives differ and every site has a different vehicle makeup from quantity of vehicles to vehicle battery sizes to vehicle utilizations. Different contract vehicles may support the project and can be dependent on existing agency resources, authorities and appropriations.
The information in this module is intended for any institution seeking to install, manage, operate or maintain electric vehicles and EVSE.
Federal fleet requirements and agency policy guide, direct and encourage federal fleet electrification efforts. To help meet these mandates, GSA is leading by example and proactively working to provide resources, tools, and access to the products and services that its partners seek to support its customer agencies and make the federal fleet electrification initiative a success.
Other federal requirements accelerate U.S. vehicle electrification and hence federal fleet efforts:
- FAST Act of 2015 Section 1413 (c) and DOE Guidance: Authorizes the federal agencies to install (on a reimbursable basis) battery recharging stations in GSA-owned parking areas for vehicles of GSA employees, tenant federal agencies, and other authorized individuals. Requires the GSA or the federal agency to charge fees to individuals to recuperate costs to procure, maintain, operate and install such stations.
- 42 U.S.C. § 13212(f)(2): No federal agency shall acquire a light duty motor vehicle or medium duty passenger vehicle that is not a low greenhouse gas emitting vehicle with certain exceptions (see guidance here).
- 42 U.S.C. 13212(b)" The federal government must acquire 75% of light-duty vehicle acquisitions as alternative fueled vehicles.
- Executive Order 14057: Federal agencies must transition their vehicle fleets to 100 percent ZEVs by 2035 and100 percent zero-emission light-duty vehicles by 2027.
Other federal requirements accelerate U.S. vehicle electrification and hence federal fleet efforts:
- Executive Order 14037: 50 percent of all new passenger cars and light trucks sold in 2030 be zero-emission vehicles, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, or fuel cell electric vehicles
- Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act:
- Establishes a National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Formula Program (“NEVI Formula”) to provide $5B funding to States to strategically deploy electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure and to establish an interconnected network to facilitate data collection, access, and reliability.
- The $2.5 billion Discretionary Grant Program for Charging and Fueling Infrastructure will ensure charger deployment will meet equity commitments for increasing EV charging access in rural, underserved and overburdened communities.
- Inflation Reduction Act: Provides Americans tax credits to purchase new and used electric vehicles, as well as making an additional $3 billion accessible to help support access to EV charging for economically disadvantaged communities through the Neighborhood Access and Equity Grant Program. Allows for elective payment for clean vehicles for tax exempt entities.
- The CHIPS and Science Act: Provides $52.7 billion for American semiconductor research, development, manufacturing and workforce development. This includes $39 billion in manufacturing incentives, including $2 billion for the legacy chips used in automobiles.
Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Components
- Parking Garage - Internal Space
- Parking Garage- External Space
Acquiring EVs and EVSE
The following resources are available to federal customers to streamline the EV and EVSE acquisition and installation processes:
- Acquiring EVs: Per to FPMR 101-26.501, GSA is the mandatory source for federal agencies to purchase any new non-tactical vehicles including EVs. Other eligible users can also purchase vehicles from GSA. Agencies can purchase or lease from GSA.
- GSA Multiple Award Schedule BPAs: GSA has awarded 16 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs) (9 are small business) with over 30 EVSE brands and 1,165 line items. Product and service offerings include Hardware, Software, Site Assessments, Consulting, Managed Charging, Charging as a Service (Caas) Warranty and others. For more information, please visit gsa.com/electrifythefleet or check out Multiple Award Schedule EVSE Offerings on category 3361E.
- GSA Installation and Infrastructure IDIQs: GSA offers a Governmentwide Design/Build & Construction Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) IDIQ contract to purchase from the Federal Supply Schedule (FSS) EVSE and Ancillary Services Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). For more information, please visit Governmentwide Design/Build and Construction IDIQ Contracts for EVSE Installation and Related Infrastructure.
- For resources and comprehensive information about GSA’s EVSE products and services, please visit: GSA's "One-Stop Shop" for Fleet Electrification
- For additional guidance on cost-effective and sustainable acquisition, access SFTool’s Buyer Resources module.
Planning for EV and EVSE
There are many factors to consider when planning to acquire, install, and maintain EV and EVSE. The Federal Fleet ZEV Readiness Center provides step-by-step guidance on how to successfully electrify the fleets. The Department of Energy and GSA also provide additional training.
Here are considerations and resources to ensure a well-informed project at every phase:
All EV and EVSE planning should begin with the establishment of a project team that fits the scope of your EV and EVSE project. The Department of Energy’s Federal Workplace Charging Program Guide establishes best practices for establishing roles and responsibilities within your project team. Begin scoping your project by determining:
- Number of EV units you plan to acquire and support with EVSE
- Size and location of your EVSE charging and parking site
- Number of parking spaces you will need to support EVs on site
- Types of EVSE needed to effectively charge EVs
The Department of Transportation's EV Infrastructure Project Planning Checklist is another great resource for project teams getting started with EVSE specific project planning.
- Ensure that your building is able to accommodate the additional electrical demand from charging your EV. Consultation with an electrician is the quickest and most reliable approach for determining if your facility requires panel and/or meter modifications.
- Depending on local energy demand, you may need to replace transformers or substations, or create a new substation. Consider the size, type, and number of vehicles that will be utilized on the property, as well as how they will be charged, to calculate how much energy you will require. Your estimates should take into account the charging stations' maximum electricity consumption, other power needs on-site, on-site storage or generating possibilities, and predicted efficiency from smart charging.
- Estimate your EV or EV fleet charging needs and load profile using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) Lite, developed by the Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Lab. Enter your fleet size and location to receive a comprehensive assessment of the EVSE required to support your vehicle(s) and an electricity demand projection.
- Ensure a smooth installation process for your electric vehicle (EV) charging stations by engaging your electric utility as soon as possible. Have the following information ready to distribute before contacting your utility, as they can all affect the cost of electrification:
- Number of stations being installed
- Power availability and reliability at your site
- Power availability and reliability of nearby transformers or substations
- Location of the nearest electrical substation
- Predicted charging cycle and charging times for your EVs
- Potential load management options
- Creating a utility engagement strategy can simplify collaboration with utility providers while planning for EVSE installation and EV procurement. Access this Utilities Partnership Guidance from the Department of Transportation to inform a utility engagement strategy. Learn more about the role of utilities in EV and EVSE projects and access utility coordination best practices.
- Utilities face high costs when increasing electric capacity. In order to maintain the supply of electricity needed for high-demand customers, utilities will often impose demand charges- additional fees for high-demand electricity accounts. Property owners can reduce demand charge assessments by implementing energy efficiency and load management methods. These tactics are optional, but can have a substantial impact on the peak loads experienced at each property and should be considered during site development for optimum cost savings.
- Consider solar-powered electric charging stations to maximize flexibility for charging. They are mobile, rely on carbon-free electricity, and are independent of the grid. For solar acquisition support, consider the following resources:
Maintain your EVs and EVSE properly by securely storing equipment, inspecting equipment parts on a regular basis, and cleaning equipment on a regular basis. Chargers may need repairs from time to time, and warranties and pricing vary by manufacturer. View available operations and maintenance options through GSA's EVSE BPA CLIN 009. It's essential to understand who is liable for maintenance and repairs, whether it's the site host, charging network, or installer. Response time, repair time, and overall uptime standards should all be included in maintenance contracts. Annual maintenance fees should also be accounted for in budgets by EV and EVSE owners. Access the following guidance from the U.S. Department of Energy for resources specific to EV and EVSE maintenance costs and expectations:
- Learn more about how EV maintenance varies from traditional vehicle maintenance and when to anticipate to replace or repair vehicle parts like batteries and brakes in the Department of Energy's Maintenance and Safety of Electric Vehicles guidance.
- For EVSE maintenance considerations and cost projections, visit the Department of Energy’s Charging Infrastructure Operation and Maintenance guidance page and be sure to review your vehicle's owner's manual and GSA training
- The Joint Office of Energy and Transportation (Joint Office) released sample cybersecurity procurement language clauses that can be modified for use in requests for proposals and electric vehicle service provider (EVSP) contracts. Agencies are required to meet the Federal Information Security Modernization Act of 2014. Cloud computing offers an opportunity for the Federal Government to take advantage of cutting-edge information technologies to dramatically reduce procurement and operating costs and greatly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of services provided to its agencies and citizens. Established by OMB in 2011, the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) is a government-wide program that promotes the adoption of secure cloud services across the federal government by providing a standardized approach to security assessment, authorization, and continuous monitoring for cloud products and services. FedRAMP empowers agencies to use modern cloud technologies, with emphasis on security and protection of federal information. Federal executive departments and agencies procuring commercial and non-commercial cloud services that are provided by information systems that support the operations and assets of the departments and agencies are required to ensure applicable contracts appropriately require cloud service providers (CSPs) to comply with FedRAMP security authorization requirements. This includes systems across all cloud deployment models (e.g., Public Clouds, Community Clouds, Private Clouds, and Hybrid Clouds) and all cloud service models (e.g., Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service, Software as a Service) as defined per NIST 800-145, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing.
- EVSE platform provider solutions delivered as a service in the cloud, meeting NIST 800-145 cloud definition, consistent with the OMB FedRAMP Policy memo, are subject to FedRAMP cloud information security and privacy requirements.
- The latest EVSE solutions that are FedRAMP authorized will appear as authorized solutions on the FedRAMP Marketplace
- These latest cybersecurity considerations for incorporating EVs into the electric grid may help mitigate risk and prepare for future regulations:
- National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Cybersecurity for Electric Vehicle Fast-Charging Infrastructure
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): ‘Cybersecurity Framework Profile 4 for Electric Vehicle Extreme Fast 5 Charging Infrastructure’ Interagency Report
- Plan for change
EV and EVSE technology is novel and constantly evolving. Prepare for evolving guidance, mandates, and emerging technologies. Automakers provide publicly available operational videos and GSA and DOE maintain up to date training and offer in person and virtual training such as FedFleet, the Energy Exchange and the EVSE Showcase. Consider setting aside a portion of your budget to account for a shifting EV and EVSE landscape, including increased technology costs, installation costs, cultural change training and possible increased labor costs with the integration of subject matter experts and consultants into your project team.
- No one size fits all approach
Each EV fleet and EVSE installation project is different and requires thorough project plan and project scoping. There is no one approach that will work for every project- be sure to understand your current EV and EVSE capabilities in every capacity, from your project team’s bandwidth to your existing site infrastructure.
- Senior level buy-in
Securing senior level buy-in is essential for a successful EV and/or EVSE project. Constructing a solid project plan with clearly defined milestones and can help you secure the financial and logistical support you need from senior management. Use the Case Studies below and these Fleet Electrification Success Stories to help you build a case for your project.
Army Corps of Engineers - Solar Install, Galveston, TX
The Army Corps of Engineers in Galveston, TX received a level 2 solar station. This station is not tied to the grid and took just 4-1/2 hours to set up before it was ready to charge vehicles. According to the technician, this setup will withstand winds up to 150 mph. The motor driven platform above the parking area tracks the sun's movement for continuous charging, ensuring the station always has adequate battery power.
U.S. Forest Service F-150 Pilot Program, Dearborn, MI
In December, 2022 the Forest Service announced a pilot program for F-150 Lightning trucks at its field site in Dearborn, MI. This pilot program creates a great opportunity to see how the new electric trucks handle rugged and remote missions and understand the viability of wide-spread adoption in rough terrains. Drivers should keep in mind these vehicles have less electrical capacity than non-EV pickups and so upfitting is limited. For example the 2022 F150 Lightning Pro has 55 amps of available electrical capacity.
Department of Energy
Check out The Department of Energy’s Federal fleet electrification success stories: DOE Electrification Success Stories.
Additional Resources and Trainings
There are a variety of resources and trainings available to support federal fleet electrification efforts, including:
- GSA ZEV & EVSE Resources: A one-stop shop for Federal agencies to get electric vehicle and infrastructure help, including product and service offering guides, procurement guidance, current events, and points of contact.
- GSA Fleet Training: Check out GSA’s repository of past and upcoming training courses, designed to help customers understand hot topics and get answers to their most pressing electrification questions.
- FEMP EV Champion Training: Check out additional training, toolkits, success stories, procurement guidance, and support resources offered by DOE to help agencies navigate their electrification journeys.
- DOE Federal Fleet Resources: Check out the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), designed to help the federal fleet community access the latest information, applications, and resources related to fleet efficiency and electrification.
Questions or requests for additional information can be directed to the following: