HVACReturn to Laboratory
Kitchen Exhaust Hoods
- Install occupant control thermostats that have prescribed temperature range limits to promote occupant comfort.
- Ensure the air supplied by the HVAC system is properly conditioned - providing comfortable temperature ranges, removing moisture and air contaminants such as odors, dust, and carbon dioxide. Proximity to an exterior wall should be evaluated to minimize ductwork.
- Ensure the minimum level, or higher, of outside air is circulated within occupied spaces to increase indoor air quality.
- Use thermostats with occupancy sensors to reduce energy consumption.
- Use filtration media to removing moisture and air contaminants such as odors, dust, and carbon dioxide.
- Use underfloor air distribution for reconfigurable technology ready space as power, voice, and data services are easily accessible with access floors.
- Install IT load meters to track consumption of the computer equipment as a separate item from HVAC or base-building load.
- Planned in advance and separately zone HVAC in the corridor and set temperatures to conserve energy.
- Separately zone HVAC in rooms with copy machines to help protect IAQ. Copier equipment gives off a lot of heat when in use, so supplemental air supply may be required.
- For smaller data rooms consider use of exhaust fans and grills in place of CRAC units.
- For larger data centers use hot/cold isle strategies to maximize HVAC system performance.
- Use and maintain supplemental exhaust vents to effectively ventilate restrooms.
- Consider using carbon dioxide sensors to regulate the circulation of outside air while the enclosed conference room is occupied to increase indoor air quality and save energy.
- Design HVAC systems to have multiple zones, specifically near south and west facing facades to increase thermal comfort in areas with more severe temperature swings.
- Conserve energy by using transfer air--conditioned air from adjacent spaces--in order to minimize the need for conditioned makeup air.
- Design for high efficiency kitchen hoods with low capture and containment (C&C) airflow rates. Ensure air exchange rates are maintained above code minimums, including NFPA 96 and local restrictions, but below ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 recommended maximums.
- Consider automating kitchen exhaust via temperature, smoke, or appliance energy use sensors to optimize performance.
- Utilize demand control ventilation (DCV) kitchen hoods to conserve energy by reducing exhaust airflow when cooking is not taking place. ASHRAE provides guidance for DCV testing and configuration.
- Consider heat recovery options to extract heat from kitchen exhaust to reheat ventilation air or service hot water.
- Evaluate whether chilled beams would meet your laboratory’s cooling needs better than a variable air volume system. Chilled beams not only allow for efficient and even cooling but also minimize air blowing down on lab benches and disturbing scientists' work.
- Design or retrofit existing labs with energy recovery systems. These may include devices that recover energy from exhaust air, such as enthalpy wheels, heat pipes, or run-around loops.
- Design ventilation based on real or virtual laboratory models that simulate airflow patterns and optimize ventilation rates under different scenarios (e.g. a spill).
- Specify low-pressure-drop design for each component of the air distribution system, including air handler coils, energy recovery devices, VAV control devices, zone temperature control devices, ductwork, and exhaust stacks.
- Consolidate equipment that generates a lot of heat away in an equipment room or away from air supply to manage impact on laboratory cooling needs. Locate exhaust registers above the back of hot equipment to remove it before it recirculates into the room.
- Control and group substances according to air change rate needs. For example, optimize airflows to do work only up to a certain control band or designate specific hoods for work with certain substances.
- Provide options to easily increase ventilation in an emergency with an override button.
- Tailor ventilation to specific tasks and to small labs within a suite, which are equipped with local exhaust (e.g. biosafety cabinet). Some recirculated air workspaces may be appropriate next to 100% exhaust rooms.
- Design process water cooling into equipment rooms. Water cooled freezers may enable chilled beam cooling of equipment rooms. Be sure to have backup water flow in case of power outage.
- Exhaust snorkels can be useful in limited applications to remove localized heat or nontoxic particles. They should always have a damper that can be closed off when not in use. Install as few as possible to meet current lab needs. Ducts can be stubbed through the ceiling and closed off to facilitate future snorkel installation if needed.
- Use a 100% direct exhaust system operated by a timer or the building automation system in order to eliminate odors and improve indoor air quality.
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Energy Efficiency ( <span>Guiding Principles criteria 2.1</span>)
“Comply with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements that establish Federal building energy efficiency standards and require the purchase, installation, and use of energy efficient products. Employ strategies that continue to optimize energy performance and minimize energy use throughout the operation and life of the building.”
DOE FEMP | Energy- and Water-Efficient Products
ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager
ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1
Commissioning ( Guiding Principles criteria 1.5)
"Employ the appropriate commissioning tailored to the size and complexity of the building type and its system components to optimize and verify performance of building systems. Ensure buildings have operational policies that support continued compliance with all relevant statutory requirements for ongoing energy and water audits, where applicable.”
DOE EERE | Commissioning for Federal Facilities
DOE | Facility Energy Management Guidelines and Criteria for Energy and Water Evaluations in Covered Facilities
ANSI / ASHRAE / IES Standard 202
2018 IgCC Section 1001.3.1.2 (10.3.1.2) Building Project Commissioning (CX) Process
Ventilation and Thermal Comfort ( <span>Guiding Principles criteria 4.1</span>)
"Comply with all relevant statutory requirements to provide occupants with safe and healthy ventilation and thermal comfort, in alignment with applicable ASHRAE standards"
ASHRAE “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality” Standard 62.1 or Standard 62.2
ASHRAE 55 "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy"
2018 IgCC Sections 801
Environmental Smoking Control ( Guiding Principles criteria 4.7)
“Prohibit smoking in any form within the building and within all building entrances, operable windows, and building ventilation intakes.”
Moisture and Mold Control ( <span>Guiding Principles criteria 4.5</span>)
“Implement moisture control strategies to minimize mold growth and associated health risks during building operations.”
2018 IgCC Section 801.3.6 (8.3.6) Moisture Control
2018 IgCC Section 1001.3.1.6 (10.3.1.6) Moisture Control
Ozone Depleting Compounds ( <span>Guiding Principles criteria 5.4</span>)
“Comply with all relevant statutory requirements and rules that establish substitutes for ozone-depleting substances.”
See EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program for alternatives and view relevant product categories on the GPC.
2018 IgCC Section 901.3.3 (9.3.3) Refrigerants
Radon Mitigation ( <span>Guiding Principles criteria 4.4</span>)
“Ensure compliance with statutory requirements to test for and mitigate radon in buildings, where appropriate.”
See EPA's Radon page for more information.
2018 IgCC Section 1001.3.1.9 (10.3.1.9) Soil-Gas Control